From: http://www.thethinkingblog.com/2008/04/extinct-human-species-smarter-than-us.html. No further attributions for this much reproduced image were located after a search.
In 1913, two farmers dug up skull fragments near Boskop, a small town in South Africa. When pieced together, it was discovered the cranial size was at least 25% bigger than Homo Sapiens today. Since that time, more skulls have been found in the region.
Current calculations estimate cranial sizes ranging from 1650 to 1900 ccs. (Our cranial size averages 1350 cc.) Not only was the skull bigger, the extra capacity was in the region of the pre-frontal cortex, linked to our higher cognitive functions.
Two neuroscientists, Lynch and Granger (2008 ), extrapolated the IQ from the brain size. This early human had a possible IQ of 150.
But wait a minute:
Anthropologists and archeologists claim this skull is simply a variation of a normal human—one with a larger skull, but not a “significantly” larger skull. This view is championed by John Hawks who states he has not read Lynch and Granger’s book but was not “surprised to see what appears to be complete lunacy in the book description.” He then cites a review of the literature done 50 years ago before claiming the idea came to Lynch and Granger from a science fiction published in 1958. Personally THAT seems far-fetched!
So let us wait another minute:
DNA studies have been done on several “elongated skulls’ most notably the Paracas Skulls.
Paracas Skulls on display at Museo Regional de Ica in the city of Ica in Peru Photo: Marcin Tlustochowicz under Creative Commons license
Long thought to be the result of artificial cranial deformation, new research suggest otherwise. Artificial deformation will change the shape of the skull, not increase the cranial capacity. Here we see a 25% increase in size–as in the Boskop skulls. In addition, fetuses have been discovered with elongated skulls, suggesting this is not an intentional deformation.
It would seem that there are, indeed, lost human species.
Here are some links for more information on Boskop Skulls:
Lynch and Granger’s book on Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Big-Brain-Origins-Future-Intelligence/dp/1403979790